Having helped Andrew Schofield build the UK's first geotechnical centrifuge at Manchester, Malcolm continued his own research in Cambridge. He is interested in every aspect of digging and tunnelling and pile-driving, and seeks techniques to minimise the risks of subsidence and collapse during excavation. 'Diggability', he says, is notoriously difficult to predict. The safety and efficient construction of underground railways systems and other subways depend on this type of research. Malcolm's 'respect for the granular nature of soils' has fascinating repercussions in other fields, such as sugar refining and neurosurgery. Malcolm was a Churchill undergraduate.